Lockdowns By Country November 2020

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INTERNATIONAL SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS BY-COUNTRY *Last updated 11/01/20

#1 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 3.6M CANADA: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

01 QUARANTINE – The Government of Canada Official Global Travel Advisory to avoid non -essential travel outside Canada remains in place. Travelers returning to Canada from abroad are required to self-isolate for 14-days as part of the Canada Quarantine Act. This order has been extended until November 30. Starting November 2, eligible international travelers returning to Alberta, arriving at the Calgary International Airport, can participate in a pilot program that will allow them to quarantine for less time provided they test negative for COVID-19 and if they commit to following specific public health and testing measures.

02 BORDERS – The federal government has extended the Canada-U.S. land border closure to all non-essential travel until November 21. Canadians are able to fly into the U.S., and insurance providers (Allianz, Manulife, Medipac and Blue Cross Eastern & Atlantic Canada) have introduced COVID-19 medical coverage into select policies that include travel to the U.S.

03 ECONOMY – Through the end of March, Canada had lost more than 1M jobs — to combat this, the largest economic stimulus program in Canada’s history has been rolled out ($82B in financial aid + tax deferrals to individuals & businesses). At its peak, roughly 3 million Canadians had lost their jobs due to the pandemic. The worst appears to have passed, as nearly 300k jobs were regained in May. With the worst of the recession likely over, the outlook for 2021 is brighter. The economy is forecast to rebound by 6.7% in 2021 and 4.8% in 2022. As the threat of the pandemic eases, how well the re-opening of the economy and the withdrawal of government support is managed will be a crucial determinant of the economy’s trajectory over the next several y ears.

04 AIRLINES – ● Air Canada currently flying YUL to FLL and YYZ to FLL, MCO, RSW, TPA; November schedule to include YUL to MCO and YYZ to MIA. ● WestJet flights once weekly flights from YYZ to FLL and RSW to begin early November ● Swoop flights from YYZ to MCO and TPA are anticipated to begin early February 2021 ● WestJet and Swoop will begin providing refunds (in the original form of payment, rather than travel vouchers) to passengers whose flights were cancelled due to the pandemic

05 RESTRICTIONS – Most provinces are experiencing a second wave of Coronavirus and have reverted to a modified Phase 2 of restrictions. The provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British Colombia are experiencing a surge in daily reported cases. The trend for more cases is due to younger people not social distancing, 47% of confirmed cases are people under the age of 40.

06 TRADE – Tour operator & travel agent future bookings are lower than expected at this time; however, some agencies are starting to re-open and offering in-person appointments. Air Canada, Air Canada Vacations, Sunwing, Swoop, Transat, WestJet and WestJet Vacations, and Flight Centre are now including complimentary COVID-19 emergency medical & quarantine insurance for bookings to select Mexico and Caribbean destinations for the fall/winter (coverage to a maximum $200,000 CAD). Air Canada includes the COVID-19 coverage for round-trip International flights. A new ULCC, Canada Jetlines Vacations, recently announced start up this winter with flights to Florida – schedule to be released later this Fall. 07 SENTIMENT – A recent Travel Leaders Network survey found that 45% of travelers are starting to plan their next trip or have already booked their next holiday̮ Asked when they’ll be travelling again, 15% of respondents said this fall, while 8% said around the holidays in 2020̮ A full 70% said they’d travel again next year, while 18% said they’re waiting until 2022̮ Christine James, Vice President Canada, TL Network, said airline and cruise ship measures to increase testing for COVID-19, offers of health insurance and other measures are contributing to a more optimistic travel mood in Canada.

UK & IRELAND: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS #2 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 1.5M | Market Share = 28.7%

01 QUARANTINE – The government announced that England will go back into lockdown starting Nov. 5 for a minimum of four weeks. The devolved countries that make up the U.K. each have different lockdown measures in place as follows:

ENGLAND:- People are required to stay at home except for education, work (if it can’t be done from home), exercise and recreation, medi cal reasons, shopping for food and other essentials, or to care for others. All pubs and restaurants will have to close (takeaways and deliveries can continue). All non-essential shops will have to close (supermarkets can sell non-essential goods). Households will not be allowed to mix with others indoors, or in private gardens. Individuals can meet one person from out side their household in an outside public space. Support bubbles for people who live alone and households made up of single parents and children can continue. Schools, nurseries, colleges and universities will remain open. Hotels will only open for people who have to travel for work plus a number of other limited reasons. Workplaces will be asked to stay open if people cannot work from home – including construction and manufacturing. Outdoor exercise and recreation will be allowed, but gyms will have to close. Clinically vulnerable advised not to go to work if t hey are unable to work from home. The furlough scheme, which was due to end on Oct 31st, has now been extended for another month, which will allow firms that are forced to close to retain staff during the new lockdown period.

SCOTLAND:- From Monday, each area of Scotland will move into one of five levels: Level zero – Almost like normal life. However, no area has been placed in this level. Level one – In time, six people from two households can meet indoors. at this level, but that will not be permitted right now. Up to six people from two households can meet outdoors or at a pub or restaurant. Hospitality has a 22:30 GMT curfew. Level two – No gatherings inside people’s homes, but up to six people from two households can meet outdoors or at a pub or restaurant. Most hospitality venues can open. Alcohol can be served indoors with a meal until 20:00 and outdoors until 22:30. Level three – No indoor gatherings at home. Pubs and restaurants can open until 18:00 but alcohol cannot be served. Leisure and entertainment venues are closed. Non-essential travel in or out of the area advised against. Level four – Closer to full lockdown. No area has been placed in this level.

WALES:- Wales is under lockdown until 9 November, during which: People should stay at home in most circumstances. Secondary school pupils above Year 8 have online learning only. People must not visit other households or meet people they do not live with. Pubs, restaurants and non-essential shops are closed. Leisure businesses, community centres, libraries and recycling centres are also shut. Places of worship are closed for normal services, except for funerals and weddings. Adults living alone or single parents can join with one other household for support from anywhere in Wales. In addition, supermarkets and food shops remain open, but are not allowed to sell “non-essential goods”.

NORTHERN IRELAND:- Northern Ireland is in the middle of four weeks of restrictions. Schools have closed for a two-week extended half-term break and will reopen on Nov 2. Other measures include: Pubs, bars and restaurants must close, except for takeaways and deliveries, which must stop by 23:00 BST. Support bubbles will be limited to a maximum of 10 people from two households. You are not allowed to stay overnight in someone else’s home, unless they are part of your bubble. Close-contact services like hairdressers and beauticians must close, except for essential services. No indoor or contact sport allowed unless at elite level; gyms stay open for individual exercise only. No mass events of more than 15 people, apart from certain sporting events. Wedding ceremonies limited to 25 people, with no receptions. Funerals limited to 25 people, with no wakes allowed before or afterwards

IRELAND:- Ireland has been on alert Level 5 since Oct 21 and will be for at least 6 weeks. Level 5 means that people are asked to stay at home unless you have a reasonable excuse (acceptable reasons are laid out by the government and include things such as going to work, exercise, shopping, seeking medical attention etc). People cannot meet other households indoors unless they are in a support bubble with them. People can meet with 1 other household in an outdoor setting which is not a home or garden, such as a park, including for exercise. Only essential workers can travel to work and only essential retail and essential services can remain open. Construction and manufacturing can continue to operate.

UK & IRELAND: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS cont. #2 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 1.5M | Market Share = 28.7%

02 BORDERS – People in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland are being told to avoid all non-essential travel domestically and overseas as part of the new lockdown measures. People cannot travel internationally or domestically, unless for work, education or other legally permitted exemptions. People in Scotland are still permitted to travel abroad to approved destinations at present and are required to self-isolate for 14-days upon return.

The government has formed a Global Taskforce which is due to advise the Prime Minister in November of their findings on testing and other measures to enable to resumption of travel. The trial of a new covid-19 “health passport” on a United Airlines flight from Heathrow to New York was deemed a success this month and can now be rolled out to airlines who want to use it. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) continues to advise against all non-essential travel except to countries and territories which have been placed on an exemption list. The USA is currently NOT on the exemption list.

03 ECONOMY – The economy bounced back faster than expected during the summer growing between 16-17% in the third quarter compared to the second quarter with consumer spending increasing and the housing market seeing a pick-up due to government incentives put in place to stimulate growth with reduced taxes, however with the increased lockdown measures, rising unemployment as the furlough scheme finishes, reduced consumer spending and slow Brexit negotiations between the UK and the EU it is thought that this growth will not be sustained in the final quarter of the year. Economists predict the UK economy will regain its pre-pandemic size by the second half of 2023.

Unemployment rate has risen to its highest level in over three years as the pandemic continues to hit jobs with the rate growing to 4.5% in the three months to August compared to 4.1% in the previous quarter and are now at their highest level since 2009. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) an estimated 1.5 m people were unemployed between June and August whilst redundancies stood at 227,000 with young people in particular being the most affected. The number claiming work related benefits, meanwhile hit 2.7 million in September, an increase of 1.5 million since the beginning of the crisis in March.

04 AIRLINES – Although airlines are operating normal flight schedules before lockdown is imposed, they will be heavily reduced again in November̮ Both British Airways and Virgin Atlantic (FL is VA’s #1 long-haul destination) still plan to resume flights to the US to Orlando when they are able to. Both BA and Virgin have resumed a reduced schedule to Miami for business travel, US nationals returning to the States and for cargo which are still thought to continue. Norwegian has also confirmed Florida as one of its top destinations had planned to resume flights in December (with Virgin focusing on LHR, they view GAT as a huge opportunity). TUI is planning to resume flights to Florida in March 2021 pending borders opening and FCO/DOT guidelines on quarantine and air corridors.

05 RESTRICTIONS – Those returning from travels abroad will be required to self isolate for 14-days (exception being the countries w/ existing bridge agreements); this policy will be reviewed every 3 weeks & there will be exemptions for certain professions.

06 TRADE – Trade partners still report that consumer sentiment for future travel to Florida is positive and forward sales for 2021 and onwards are continuing to grow steadily, but numbers are lower than historically experienced. However the continuing restrictions on travel to other short haul countries and the constant changing of these rules is deterring consumers from planning ahead. Current consumer behaviour being reported is that lead times for short haul bookings is down to 2-3 days prior to departure making trend prediction extremely difficult for forward bookings.

07 SENTIMENT – US ranked as 2nd highest destination on UK’s list of places to travel + 80% of British travelers still plan to take a holiday abroad and budgets remain the same or higher; in the last month TO’s are reporting demand for booking 2021 & onward has returned. Some operators are planning large campaigns for Florida from September onwards, Universal have started to market in the UK again and some partners (Bradenton and Naples) have co-ops planned with tour operators from August/September promoting travel for next year. We have approached trade vendors for marketing plan proposals from 2021 onwards to proactively plan for when borders re-open and travel restrictions start to ease. VF continues to evaluate and add programs to engage the travel trade and equip them with the tools to see Florida

BRAZIL: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS #3 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 1.2M | Market Share = 58.1%

01 QUARANTINE – The President has not issued an official quarantine, but individual state/city governments have due to the seriousness of the situation and it is not expected to lift before the end of the year. Most retail shops, malls and restaurants are open (with limited hours) and the majority of schools are expected to re-open this month (October).. The number of new COVID-19 cases has decreased for the 10th consecutive week and the number of deaths in Brazil is at the lowest number since early May.

02 BORDERS – US borders closed to Brazilian travelers the last week of May, the length of the ban is unknown. Starting August 1st, US citizens were permitted to travel into Brazil again.

03 ECONOMY – The Q2 GDP results presented a -9.7% drop vs same period LY. The government approved billions of dollars of stimulus money to help the economy, employers/employees & postponed mandatory taxes for several sectors in order to minimize the economic impact + assist companies in sustaining existing manpower.

04 AIRLINES – Prior to COVID-19 Florida enjoyed more lift from Brazil than any other destination in the world (breadth & depth) — that lift frequency and level will not return immediately, restoration began in July and full lift restoration, among all three carriers (AA/DL/UA) isn’t expected to return until 2022. ● Delta flights to Atlanta and New York are planned to resume in December. ● AA and UA plan to resume operations in December. ● CM resumed flights to/from GRU on August 15th and starting this month (October) will have 10 weekly operations from Panama City to Miami and by the end of the month, will increase flights from Orlando from four weekly flights to 12. ● Still no confirmed dates for Tampa and Fort Lauderdale but they expect to return FLL on Nov 20th and Tampa on Dec 11th ̮ The Copa flights from São Paulo to Panama operating, from Rio de Janeiro to Panama City starting in October, and November will have Brasilia and Belo Horizonte.

05 TRADE – Tour operators are optimistic about future booking and expect to resume profitable activities in 2021; the main concern is how cumbersome pre/post boarding will become on travelers. The majority of the Florida DMO Partners with representation in Brazil have paused, but have indicated they will resume once travel is restored. As for upcoming tradeshows/events, Festuris Gramado is taking place this week — Nov. 5 -8, 2020; Forum Panrotas is postponed until March 2021; WTM Latin America is postponed/re-scheduled for April 6-8, 2021 and BTM (formerly JPA) is postponed/re-scheduled for May 14-15, 2021.

06 SENTIMENT – After 9/11 LATAM was the first international regions/markets to resume traveling to Florida. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina & Colombia must be viewed through the prism of Latin America where political uncertainty, economic instability and even general health concer ns are a part of their daily lives. Each market will vary a bit in timing and reaction to COVID, but all are predicted to rebound sooner than most international markets.

COLOMBIA: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS #4 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 610K | Market Share = 64.6%

01 QUARANTINE – As of Sept. 1, the lockdown was officially lifted. Restaurants, bars, malls and other commercial establishments are allowed t o open at the discretion of the city/county. 02 BORDERS – Officially reopened on Sept. 1 and flights to the US/Florida have resumed. Starting October 1 travelers arriving in Colombia must submit a CURRENT (results provided within the last 96 hours of travel date) negative COVID-19 test.

03 ECONOMY – In the sixth committees of the Senate and the Chamber, the approval of the bill for the current General Tourism Law will be debated, with the aim of developing and promoting of tourist competitiveness, including the VAT on air tickets would be lowered from 19% to 5% and tourist services would be exempt from VAT until the end of 2021.

According to the World Bank, Colombia will be one of the least affected LATAM countries, with its economy dropping only 4.9% during 2020; also worth noting the National Government has granted relief funds to help the tourism sector, one of the hardest hit by COVID-19). Among these reliefs are the exemption from VAT on all tourist & hotel services, the temporary suspension of the energy surcharge for hotels & theme parks, the elimination of the rent advance, etc.

04 AIRLINES – National flights resumed Sept. 1 and first international flights took place in September with VivaAir (Cartagena-Miami) and Spirit Airlines (Cartagena-Ft. Lauderdale). Additional international flights to the US, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia and Guatemala are scheduled to resume Sept. 21.

● El Dorado airport in Bogotä partnered with Synlab laboratories and Opain to set up a COVID-19 testing center offering four different types of tests that deliver results within two hours ● National flight frequencies resumed on September 1. International flight frequencies resumed on September 19 with the Medellin-Cartagena-Miami route operated by Spirit Airlines and the Cartagena-Fort Lauderdale route operated by Viva Air. ● Avianca resumed flights to Miami from Medellin on September 28. Starting October 1, Avianca will operate 1 daily flight frequency from Bogota to Miami ● American Airlines is operating flight frequencies to Miami from Cali, Medellín, Bogotä and Cartagena̮ More than 80% occupancy is reported on flights to Miami from Cartagena

05 TRADE – On October 26 ANATO released a new survey related to the reactivation of travel agencies in which it highlights that 80% of Travel Agencies have resumed their marketing activities, some of the strategies they have implemented to market their products are: improving the company’s website (59%); advertising in new digital channels (58%) and content generation (52%). It is said by industry experts that he key to the recovery of the Colombian market will be driven by three determining factors that should be executed quickly in the coming weeks: 1. Elimination of the Covid-19 PCR test with 96 hours in advance for all passengers who want to enter Colombia on an international flight, including Colombians traveling to Florida 2. Resumption of regular flight frequencies, paired with the increase on frequencies to international destinations, including flights to different airports in Florida where you fly from different cities in Colombia 3. Implementation of a public relations campaign focusing on communication biosafety measures and the opening of destinations to which Colombians can currently travel to.

06 SENTIMENT – Travelers have an optimistic outlook about travel and the number of consumers taking international trips is expected to significantly increase in the next six months + according to industry experts, Florida is the top U.S. destinations Colombians will travel to because of connectivity.

After 9/11 LATAM was the first international regions/markets to resume traveling to Florida. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina & Colombia must be viewed through the prism of Latin America where political uncertainty, economic instability and even general health concerns are a part of their daily lives. Each market will vary a bit in timing and reaction to COVID, but all are predicted to rebound sooner than most international markets.

MEXICO: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS #6 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 502K | Market Share = 18.3%

01 QUARANTINE – As of May 30, each state/city began a gradual re-opening on their own terms based non-contagion rates. Overall the numbers of epidemic affectation have been on a downward trend for more than 10 weeks with many states entering the “green status” or “contagion free” zones and no longer registers in the red alert status. The Government announced that by March 2021 the production and distribution of a “secure” vaccine would be completed, made by laboratories Pfizer, CanSino, AstraZeneca and Oxford University and it will be free to all Mexican citizens.

02 BORDERS – Currently closed into the US for land travelers until at least November 21.

03 ECONOMY – The financial institution — Credit Suisse — estimates that this year the Mexican economy will contract 9.6%, which is the big gest drop since 1932 when the GDP fell by more than 14%. However, the 5.7% advance figures in the Global Economic Activity Indicator (lower than the 8.8% growth in June), indicated that the economy is improving, but a slower pace than seen previously. Additionally the timely information for the Q3 of 2020 reflects that the economy could be on the path of recovery, data on the economy published by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) show that the country could be seeing a recovery in-line with the expected 8% contraction for 2020.

04 AIRLINES – Once travel restrictions are removed, air lift will return, but not expected to return to full capacity until 2021. ● Aeromexico flights to Miami and Orlando are active since June 1 with 6 weekly flights and report full capacity, ● Volaris also reports full capacity on their flights from Guadalajara to Miami and Orlando and expects to resume Mexico City frequencies by the end of the year; they are targeting travelers with aggressive low rates (under $115 USD for round trip flying to MCO) ● Interjet has reported 88% increase in their domestic flights and has a strategy to avoid bankruptcy and to rebounce their international flights by the end of the year; recent news about the cancellation of their route to Cozumel presents a good opportunity for Florida to capture those travelers eager to visit a beach destination in Q4 2020 and Q1 2021.

05 TRADE – Ahead of the so-called “good weekend-buen fin” national sale starting next week on Nov̮ 9, lasting 20 days, main TO and OTA’s — such as Viajes Palacio and Travel Shop — are launching special sales campaigns with flexible booking/changes allowed is attributed to the increase in sales.

The merger between Despegar and Best Day is officially finalized and for the time being, both brands will continue operating individually. With the announcement of the parks reopening bookings immediately increased starting in Sept. 2020; OTAs like Despegar, Price Travel, Best Day and Expedia are reporting sales on packages for Q4 2020, the mix of great deals + aggressive campaigns with flexible booking/changes allowed is attributed to the increase.

Due to the pandemic, most relevant US destinations are currently not marketing in Mexico and have not stated when they will resume, which creates a unique opportunity for Florida to stand out and capture market share among the significant percentage of the population not affected economically by COVID and still desiring to travel to nearby destinations.

06 SENTIMENT – Beach destinations still rank #1 in preference for Mexican travelers among OTA’s & this market is not impacted by concerns ov er “long-haul” travel given it’s close proximity to Florida̮ Also Mexican travelers feel they’ve missed two holidays in a row (Semana Santa and Summer vacations), so they are showing increase interest in searches and bookings for Q4 and first months of 2021 taking advantage of the great deals they can actually find with low prices on flights, free hotel nights and flexibility to reschedule.

After 9/11 LATAM was the first international regions/markets to resume traveling to Florida. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina & Colombia must be viewed through the prism of Latin America where political uncertainty, economic instability and even general health concerns are a part of their daily lives. Each market will vary a bit in timing and reaction to COVID, but all are predicted to rebound sooner than most international markets.

GERMANY: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS #7 International Market | 2019 Visitation = 403K | Market Share = 17.6%

01 QUARANTINE – German Chancellor Angela Merkel has agreed with all premiers of the federal states on drastic measures that will also have a strong impact on the travel industry. Hotels and vacation homes are no longer allowed to host tourists, also restaurants will have to close, large events are cancelled, unnecessary travel is strongly discouraged, all those that can work from home should, meetings in public spaces are restricted to two households and no more than 10 people, entertainment facilities are closed, public recreation centers (such as swimming pools, gyms, etc.) and no crowds at sporting events. Schools/kindergartens will remain open; church services and protests will be allowed to continue due to constitutional concerns; nursing home residents will be allowed to receive visitors; shows will remain open w/ one customer allowed per 10 square meters and borders will remain open.

02 BORDERS – The list of newly designated risk areas published by the Robert Koch Institute is valid as of October 24th. The following countries will then be completely classified as risk areas: Great Britain with the exception of the Channel Islands, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Poland and Switzerland. In addition, individual regions in popular vacation destinations were added. For example, in Austria and Italy as well as in Bulgaria, Estonia, Croatia, Sweden, Slovenia and Hungary.

03 ECONOMY – After several quarters with shrinking production in the manufacturing sector, the COVID-19 crisis has hit the German economy with unprecedented force. The simultaneity of multiple supply and demand shocks is likely to be unique compared to previous economic crises. 04 AIRLINES – Lufthansa CEO Carsten Spohr has announced that operations in winter will be reduced more significantly than previously planned. Last week Lufthansa had already announced that the company will offer a maximum of 25% of last year’s capacity instead of the 50% originally planned. This is because with rising COVID-19 infections in Europe and America, leading to travel restrictions and quarantine obligations, demand is collapsing again. Lufthansa and its sister companies Eurowings, Swiss, Austrian and Brussels Airlines will therefore be decommissioning 125 aircraft that were scheduled to take off in winter. Management estimates that the number of passengers will remain more than 80% below the previous year’s figure. A large part of the administrative staff will be put on maximum short-time work until the end of February. 05 TRADE – The world’s largest travel fair — ITB Berlin — has announced it will take place virtually in March 2021. This is stated in a letter from Messe Berlin to ITB partners: “Under consideration of all the circumstances, Messe Berlin has decided that ITB Berlin and the ITB Berlin Convention will take p lace from 9 to 12th March 2021 in digital form purely,” the letter states. In mid-October ITB boss David Ruetz had already said that in view of the increasing number of Covid 19 infections, preparations were being made for various scenarios

06 SENTIMENT – Despite the COVID-19 pandemic the customers’ desire to travel remains unbroken̮ When it comes to the three most important prerequisites for travel (enough money, time and desire) the customers’ answers are very similar compared to November 2019̮ There is a slight tendency to travel to familiar regions with an own vehicle and a somewhat greater interest in recreation, nature, and city trips. The respondents made special demands on the hygiene standards in the destinations and especially on the hotels. If problems occur at the destination, a quick return must be guaranteed. But the desire to travel goes hand in hand with hig her demands on the industry. Customers expected a money-back guarantee, generous cancellation rules and extended goodwill arrangements in general, as well as flexibility and transparency from the tour operators.

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES . . .

FRANCE French President Emmanuel Macron has announced a second national lockdown until at least the end of November. Mr Macron said that under the new measures, starting on Friday Oct 30th, people would only be allowed to leave home for essential work or medical reasons. Non-essential businesses, such as restaurants and bars, will close, but schools and factories will remain open. Covid daily deaths in France are at the highest level since April. On Tuesday, 33,000 new cases were confirmed.

BELGUIM Belgium has imposed a partial lockdown after being hit harder by the virus than any other country in the European Union. Non-essential shops have been shut and trades that require close contact, like hairdressers, are closed. Gyms, pools and other cultural and leisure facilities are also closed. Working from home is mandatory, if possible. Belgians are allowed to welcome only one close contact into their homes. Those who live alone will be allowed two of these so-called “cuddle contacts”. Beyond their home, gatherings will be limited to a maximum of four people. The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control on Friday ranked Belgium as the worst affected nation in the 27 -nation bloc, with 1,600 cases per 100,000 people.

ITALY New restrictions were introduced on Monday Oct 26 and will remain in place for a month. All bars and restaurants have to close by 6pm, but can provide takeaways after this time, although schools and work places remain open. Gyms, swimming pools, theatres and cinemas are closed but museums remain open and people are ask ed to not leave their immediate areas. Gatherings for weddings, baptisms and funerals are banned. Face masks are already compulsory everywhere apart from at home.

GREECE Greece will shut down restaurants, bars, cafes, cinemas and gyms across a large part of the country, including the capital At hens, after a surge in coronavirus cases. Outlining the measures in a televised address, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said the changes will take effect on Tuesday Nov 3rd and last for the whole of November. Restaurants in the affected areas will still be able to offer food for takeaway and deliveries. Masks will become mandatory across the whole of Greece and a curfew will come into force from midnight to 5am. University classes across the country will have to be conducted online. But in contrast to the spring lockdown, travel within the country will not be affected and retai l shops will stay open.

SPAIN Spain declared a state of emergency and began a nationwide curfew between 11pm and 6am on Sunday Oct. Territorial restrictions are in place and meetings of more than six are banned across the country. People are only allowed to make a journey if going to work, buying medicine or caring for someone. Prime minister Pedro Sänchez is seeking approval to prolong the measures – currently in place for 15 days -until 9 May. Face masks already have to be worn on public transport and indoors in public spaces, with a lot of regions making masks compulsory outside too.

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